UL 94 Tests for Flammability of Plastic Materials for Parts in Devices and Appliances
1.1 These requirements cover tests for flammability of polymeric materials used for parts in devices and appliances. They are intended to serve as a preliminary indication of their acceptability with respect to
flammability for a particular application.
1.2 The methods described in this Standard involve standard size specimens and are intended to be used solely to measure and describe the flammability properties of materials, used in devices and appliances,
in response to a small open flame or radiant heat source under controlled laboratory conditions.
1.3 The tests in the Standard for Tests for Flammability of Small Polymeric Component Materials should be used to evaluate small components which contain materials that can not be fabricated into
standardized specimens in the minimum use thickness and subjected to applicable preselection tests in UL 94. Test procedures in UL 1694 are applicable to small components with an overall volume of less than
2500 mm3 (0.15 in3). UL 1694 is generally not applicable to small components with an overall volume greater than 2500 mm3 (0.15 in3).
1.4 The final acceptance of the material is dependent upon its use in complete equipment that conforms with the standards applicable to such equipment. The flammability classification required of a material is
dependent upon the equipment or device involved and the particular use of the material. The performance level of a material determined by these methods shall not be assumed to correlate with its performance
in end-use application. The actual response to heat and flame of materials depends upon the size and form, and also on the end-use of the product using the material. Assessment of other important
characteristics in the end-use application includes, but is not limited to, factors such as ease of ignition, burning rate, flame spread, fuel contribution, intensity of burning, and products of combustion.
1.5 If found to be appropriate, the requirements are applied to other nonmetallic materials.
1.6 These tests, with the exception of the Radiant Panel Test in Section 10, are not applicable to the
evaluation of parts where the thickness exceeds 13.0 mm or where the surface area exceeds 1 m2. These
requirements do not cover polymeric materials when used for building construction, finishing, or contents
such as wall and floor coverings, furnishings, decorative objects and so forth. In addition, the fire
resistance (in terms of an hourly rating), flame spread, smoke characterization, and heat release rate is
not evaluated. Other fire tests exist and shall be used to evaluate the flammability of materials in the
intended end-use-product configuration.
2.1.1 Any undated reference to a code or standard appearing in the requirements of this standard shall be interpreted as referring to the latest edition of that code or standard.
2.2 Referenced standards in this text
2.2.1 If a designation for a test method is followed by an alternate or equivalent designation, in parenthesis, the latter method is considered technically equivalent, though not necessarily identical, and
might yield somewhat different numerical test results than those obtained with the original test method. ISO 13943, Fire Safety – Vocabulary (ASTM E 176, Standard Terminology of Fire Standards)
ISO 291 : Standard Atmospheres for Conditioning and Testing (ASTM D 618, Practice for Conditioning Plastics for Testing)
ASTM D 789, Test Method for Determination of Relative Viscosity of Polyamide
ASTM E 162-08, Test Method for Surface Flammability of Materials Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source
ASTM D 3195, Practice of Rotameter Calibration
IEC TS60695-11-4, Test Flames 50 W Flames – Apparatus and Confirmational Test Methods; Method A and IEC TS60695-11-3, Test Flames 500 W Flames – Apparatus and Confirmational Test Methods;
Method A ( ASTM D 5025, Specification for a Laboratory Burner Used for Small-Scale Burning Tests on Plastic Materials; ASTM D 5207, Practice for Confirmation of 20 mm (50 W) Test Flames for Small-Scale
Burning Tests on Plastic Materials)
ASTM 2016, Standard Specification for Industrial Woven Wire Cloth, Appendix X3 HB: ASTM D 635, Test Method for Rate of Burning and/or Extent and Time of Burning of Self-Supporting
Plastics in a Horizontal Position (IEC 60695-11-10, Fire hazard testing Part 11-10; Test flames 50 W horizontal and vertical flame test methods)
V: ASTM D 3801, Test Method for Measuring the Comparative Burning Characteristics of Solid Plastics in a Vertical Position (IEC 60695-11-10, Fire hazard testing Part 11-10: Test flames 50 W horizontal and
vertical flame test methods)
VTM: ASTM D 4804, Test Method for Determining the Flammability Characteristics of Nonrigid Solid Plastics (ISO 9773, Plastics – Determination of Burning Behavior of Flexible Vertical Specimens in
Contact with a Small Flame Ignition Source)
5V: ASTM D 5048, Test Method for Measuring the Comparative Burning Characteristics and Resistance to Burn-Through of Solid Plastics Using a 125 mm Flame (IEC 60695-11-20, Fire hazard testing Part
11-20: Test flames 500 W flame test methods)
HBF: ASTM D 4986, Test Method for Horizontal Burning Characteristics of Cellular Polymeric Materials (ISO 9772, Cellular Plastics – Determination of Horizontal Burning Characteristics of Small Specimens
Subjected to a Small Flame)